Enamel remineralization assessment after treatment with three different remineralizing agents using surface microhardness: An in vitro study
ABSTRACT: This study evaluated enamel remineralization after treatment with three different remineralizing agents using surface microhardness assessment. The in-vitro study involved 50 enamel samples divided into five groups of 10 samples each. The positive control group consisted of intact enamel; a negative control group consisted of demineralized enamel samples. All groups excluding the positive control group were subjected to demineralization after which three of these groups were remineralized using remineralizing agents (casein phosphopeptide/amorphous calcium phosphate [CPP-ACP] [GC Tooth Mousse], casein phosphopeptide/amorphous calcium phosphate with fluoride [CPP-ACPF] [GC Tooth Mousse Plus], and sodium fluoride [phos-flur]). The groups treated with remineralizing agents were subjected to pH cycling over a period of 28 days, followed by assessment of surface microhardness. One-way analysis of variance test and posthoc Tukey test were conducted for multiple group comparison. RESULTS: There was an improved enamel remineralization in the group remineralized using CPP-ACPF in comparison with the other groups. The authors concluded that casein phosphopeptide with fluoride is a promising material for remineralization of enamel subsurface lesions.
Effects of ion-releasing tooth-coating material on demineralization of bovine tooth enamel
ABSTRACT: The authors compared the effect of a novel ion-releasing tooth-coating material that contained S-PRG (surface-reaction type prereacted glass-ionomer) filler to that of non-S-PRG filler and nail varnish on the demineralization of bovine enamel subsurface lesions. The demineralization process of bovine enamel was examined using quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF) and electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA) measurement. Ion concentrations in demineralizing solution were measured using inductively coupled plasma atomic (ICP) emission spectrometry and an ion electrode. The nail varnish group and the non-S-PRG filler group showed linear demineralization. Although the nail varnish group and the non-S-PRG filler group showed linear demineralization, the S-PRG filler group did not. Further, plane-scanning by EPMA analysis in the S-PRG filler group showed no changes in Ca ion distribution, and F ions showed peak levels on the surface of enamel specimens. Most ions in the demineralizing solution were present at higher concentrations in the S-PRG filler group than in the other two groups. In conclusion, only the S-PRG filler-containing tooth-coating material released ions and inhibited demineralization around the coating.
Effectiveness of a new fluoride varnish for caries prevention in pre-school children
ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a new fluoride varnish (Clinpro™ White Varnish, 3M ESPE, Seefeld, Germany) with regard to caries incidence within a 2-year period. A non-randomized sample of 400 German children was divided into a fluoride group (FG, biannual application of fluoride varnish) and control group (CG, no intervention). Non-cavitated caries lesions were recorded using World Health Organization and Universal Visual Scoring System criteria. Parents were given questionnaires to gather information about their socio-economic status (SES). Non-parametric methods and binomial logistic regression were used for data analysis. RESULTS: There was a significant increase in caries incidence in both groups. The number of non-cavitated carious lesions was significantly lower in the FG (mean 2.2; SD 2.3) compared with the CG (mean 2.9; SD 1.9). Initial statistical analysis revealed that fluoride varnish might prevent non-cavitated carious lesions. When including SES as a confounder into regression model, potential preventive effect was lost. This study underlines the importance of the multi-factorial etiology of caries and illustrates that the effectiveness of biannual fluoride varnish application was evident in non-cavitated carious lesions only.