Heraeus Kulzer, Amann Girrbach Partner to Produce a Full Digital Denture

Posted on May 28, 2015

SOUTH BEND, INDIANA, May 28, 2015—In a joint development program, Heraeus Kulzer and Amann Girrbach have established the technical pre-conditions for the production of a full digital denture. This new license agreement permits reciprocal use by the two companies of their patented innovations.

Heraeus Kulzer, one of the leading global dental manufacturers, has joined forces with Vorarlberg, Austria-basedAmann Girrbach AG, a leading full-service provider of digital dental prosthetics, to smooth a path toward full digital dentures. Amann Girrbach has developed and patented a “Fabrication method for denture teeth,” while Heraeus Kulzer has created and manufactured the functional models for tooth blanks used in Amann Girrbach’s fabrication method. Heraeus Kulzer is also the owner of a European patent covering “Method and device for producing a dental prosthesis” that protects the entire digital process for the automated production of dentures.

The recently signed license agreement permits reciprocal use of the above patents by the two partners. The contractually protected methods and devices used in the digital production of a full denture are thus exclusively accessible to the two companies up to the expiration of the agreement. The license agreement also specifies exclusive use of the Heraeus Kulzer’s Pala teeth lines for the launch of the full digital denture.

“The protection provided by our patents makes it possible for our innovations to create value for our customers and our companies. The exclusive license agreement between Amann Girrbach and Heraeus Kulzer is the result of our close and productive partnership”, said Novica Savic, Head of the Dental Materials Division at Heraeus Kulzer. “This allows us to take an important step forward together in the production of full digital prosthetics, benefiting dental professionals and patients alike.”

Figure 1 below depicts Pala Mix & Match denture teeth in a special blank form secured in a retaining apparatus.  The tooth blocks would then be milled based on a virtual denture model.

Treating Gum Disease Reduces Prostate Symptoms, CWRU Researchers Find

Posted on May 28, 2015

Treating gum disease reduced symptoms of prostate inflammation, called prostatitis, report researchers from Case Western Reserve University School of Dental Medicine and the Departments of Urology and Pathology at University Hospitals Case Medical Center.

Previous studies have found a link between gum disease and prostatitis, a disease that inflames the gland that produces semen. Inflammation can make urination difficult.

"This study shows that if we treat the gum disease, it can improve the symptoms of prostatitis and the quality of life for those who have the disease," said Nabil Bissada, chair of Case Western Reserve's Department of Periodontics and the new study's corresponding author.

The researchers reported their findings in the Dentistry article, "Periodontal Treatment Improves Prostate Symptoms and Lowers Serum PSA in Men with High PSA and Chronic Periodontitis." Naif Alwithanani, a graduate student in the dental school, led the investigation as part of his residency in periodontics.

Bissada explained that gum disease not only affects the mouth, but is a system-wide condition that can cause inflammation in various parts of the body. The dental school has previously found a link between gum disease and fetal deaths, rheumatoid arthritis and heart disease.

Researchers studied 27 men, 21 years old and older. Each had had a needle biopsy within the past year that confirmed inflammation of the prostate gland, and a blood test that showed elevated prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels--possible signs of inflammation and cancer.

The men were assessed for symptoms of prostate disease by answering questions on the International-Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) test about their quality of life and possible urination issues.

Researchers found 21 of the 27 participants had no or mild inflammation, but 15 had biopsy-confirmed malignancies. Two had both inflammation and a malignancy.

The men also had to have at least 18 teeth and were examined for signs of gum disease, such as increased levels of inflammation and bleeding and/or loose teeth due to attachment and bone loss.

All the men had moderate to severe gum disease, for which they received treatment. They were tested again for periodontal disease four to eight weeks later and showed significant improvement.

During the periodontal care, the men received no treatment for their prostate conditions. But even without prostate treatment, 21 of the 27 men showed decreased levels of PSA. Those with the highest levels of inflammation benefited the most from the periodontal treatment. Six participants showed no changes.

Symptom scores on the IPSS test also showed improvement.

Bissada is now conducting follow-up research to support the first study's findings. He hopes to make periodontal treatment a standard part of treating prostate disease, much like cardiac patients are often encouraged to visit their dentist before undergoing heart procedures and a dental checkup is advised for women who are pregnant or considering pregnancy.

(Case Western Reserve dental researchers Nishant Joshi, Catherine Demko and Robert Skillicorn; and University Hospitals Case Medical Center researchers Donald Bodner, Lee Ponsky, Sanjay Gupta and Gregory T. MacLennan contributed to the study.)

Source: EurekAlert!

Survey: Dental Care Delayed When Money Is Tight

Posted on May 28, 2015

WASHINGTON (MarketWatch) — A quarter of respondents to a Federal Reserve survey delayed getting needed dental care because finances were too tight.

The survey, released Wednesday, was the central bank’s second survey of household economics and decisionmaking, and was conducted in October and November.

It found, as other surveys have, the inability to respond to emergencies. Only 53% of respondents indicate that they could cover a hypothetical emergency expense costing $400 without selling something or borrowing money, the report said.

The survey also found that retirement was just a dream for many households — 38% say they either won’t retire or plan to keep working as longer as possible. That percentage climbs to 55% among those whose household income is less than $40,000 a year.

More broadly, though, households were growing more confident. While there was just a 3 percentage point rise in the percentage of adults (65%) who consider their families to be doing “okay” or living “comfortably,” there was an 8 percentage point gain in the percentage, 29%, who expected their income to be higher in a year.

There’s also general optimism about the housing market. Some 43% say their house increased in value over the last year, and 39% expect home values in their neighborhood to rise in the coming year.

Also of note, education debt has bled well beyond traditional student lenders. The survey finds 14% of those with education debt have financed part of it with credit cards.

Individuals who did not complete an associate or bachelor’s degree, first-generation students, blacks and Hispanics, and those who attended for-profit institutions, are all disproportionately likely to be behind on repaying their student loan debt, the survey added.

DENTSPLY Implants Hosts Educational Meeting

Posted on May 28, 2015

In April, DENTSPLY Implants hosted its annual ATLANTIS Super Elite Laboratory group in Nashville, Tennessee.

During the 2-day event, participants were provided with corporate updates and presentations from fellow laboratory colleagues including David Johnson from D & S Dental Laboratory, Conrad Rensburg from Absolute Dental Services, and Kurtis Helm from Helm Dental Laboratory. Guest speaker presentations were also given by Michael Dehni (Boston, Massachusetts), who highlighted the importance of branding and utilizing social media as a marketing tool, and Dr. David Little (San Antonio, Texas) who examined the clinical considerations for the ATLANTIS Conus concept – one of DENTSPLY Implants’ latest, patient-specific digital implant solutions.

Roundtable discussions were led by senior members of DENTSPLY Implants in order to answer questions and collect user feedback regarding suggested improvements to the development, design and manufacturing aspects of products and services offered.

Dave Hodson, General Manager of Harmony Dental Laboratory, said the event was productive.

“I appreciated the open communication on the part of DENTSPLY Implants as well as the lab participants," Hodson said. "The camaraderie that has developed at these meetings should not go unnoticed. The degree to which the participating laboratories share information and ideas, both during meeting sessions and social events is impressive. I look forward to attending the next meeting."

Patterson Dental & America’s Toothfairy Keep Young Smiles Sparkling with Catalog Proceeds

Posted on May 27, 2015

 

Charlotte, NC, May 27, 2015 – America’s ToothFairy: National Children’s Oral Health Foundation® and Patterson Dental are teaming up to keep young smiles shining bright with a marketing promotion in the current Sparkle catalog. During the months of May and June, a generous percentage of product sales highlighted in the designated blue section (pages 35-39) of the catalog will be donated to America’s ToothFairy to expand smile-saving educational, prevention and treatment programs for at-risk children.

Patterson Dental first sponsored the Sparkle campaign benefiting America’s ToothFairy in 2013. Since then, nearly $42,000 has been raised from 20 participating companies. With a goal to “make dentistry fun” for young patients, Sparkle is distributed to 167,000 dental professionals.

“Patterson Dental is proud to support America’s ToothFairy and rally its corporate partners to support education and care for at-risk children through this Sparkle campaign,” said Paul Guggenheim, President of Patterson Dental. “We encourage dental professionals to embrace this important cause and support companies and products that make a tangible difference in the lives of children in need.”

Generous companies participating in this year’s campaign include Beesure, Centrix, Inc., Certol International, Cranberry, DentalEZ Integrated Solutions, Ivoclar Vivadent, Kerr Corporation, Mydent International, Premier® Dental Products Company, Pulpdent Corporation, SDI (North America) Inc., Septodont, SS White Dental, and Whip Mix Corporation.

“We are very grateful to Patterson Dental and all participating companies for their generous contributions to this annual effort,” said Fern Ingber, America’s ToothFairy President and CEO. “By taking part in the Sparkle campaign, these companies demonstrate their commitment to caring for at-risk children and building healthier communities.”

Dental professionals are invited to look for the America’s ToothFairy section in their copy of the Sparkle catalog or review the catalog online.

 

About Patterson Dental

Patterson Dental, a leading distributor of dental products, equipment and technology in the U.S. and Canada, serves as the largest business in the progressive, global Patterson Companies (Nasdaq: PDCO) family of businesses. Patterson is committed to creating value for customers through products, services and lasting relationships. Dental professionals who partner with Patterson enjoy the convenience and peace of mind that come with relying on one trusted source for everything they need.

About America’s ToothFairy: National Children’s Oral Health Foundation®

America’s ToothFairy: National Children’s Oral Health Foundation is dedicated to raising awareness of one of the most prevalent chronic childhood illnesses: pediatric dental disease, facilitating the delivery of comprehensive oral health services and eliminating this preventable disease from future generations. With a growing Affiliate Network of exemplary non-profit community programs, Kids Club, and professional and student service programs, America’s ToothFairy is building a powerful, united effort to eliminate tooth decay and protect the smiles of our most vulnerable children. For more information, visit www.AmericasToothFairy.org.

AAPD Names New Board Officers, Trustees at AAPD 2015 in Seattle

Posted on May 26, 2015

CHICAGO, May 26, 2015 /PRNewswire-USNewswire/ -- The American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry (AAPD), the leading authority on children's oral health, inducted the new president and other officers and trustees for the new AAPD board of trustees in Seattle, Wash., on May 24, 2015.

Robert L. Delarosa, DDS, President.Delarosa graduated from the Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center and received his certificate in pediatric dentistry from the University of Texas Health Science Center in San Antonio. His presidential agenda will include creating a taskforce to investigate the growing debt burden of recent graduates and sustaining the value of AAPD membership and organizational strength. Delarosa is in private practice inBaton Rouge, La.

Jade Miller, DDS, President-Elect.Miller received his degree from the University of the Pacific, Arthur A. Dugoni Dental School. He earned his certificate in pediatric dentistry from the Children's Hospital Medical Center at Cincinnati Children's Hospital. He is in private practice in Reno, Nev.

James D. Nickman, DDS, Vice President.Nickman earned his dental and M.S. degrees from the University of Minnesota. He maintains a private practice in the Twin Cities and teaches part-time at the University of Minnesota.

Joe Castellano, DDS, Secretary-Treasurer. Castellano received his degree from the University of Texas School of Dentistry. He is an assistant Clinical Professor for the Department of Developmental Dentistry at the University of Texas' Health Science Center in San Antonio. Castellano is in private practice in Laredo, Texas.

Edward H. Moody, Jr., DDS, Immediate Past President.Moody received his degree from the University of Tennessee, College of Dentistry and his certificate in pediatric dentistry from the Medical College of Virginia. Active in numerous professional dental organizations, Moody is in private practice in Morristown, Tenn.

Sara L. Filstrup, DDS, MS, Parliamentarian. Filstrup received her M.S. from The University of Michigan School of Dentistry and received her dental degree from The University of Michigan School of Dentistry. She is in private practice in Cambridge, Mass.

Bruce Weiner, DDS, Southwestern Trustee.Weiner graduated from The Virginia Military Institute with a U.S. Air Force commission. He received his degree from the University of Maryland's Baltimore College of Dental Surgery where he also completed his residency. He is in private practice in Fort Worth, Texas.

John L. Gibbons, DMD, Western District Trustee. Gibbons received his degree from Washington University of St. Louis and completed his residency at Oregon Health Sciences University. He is an affiliate instructor at the University of Washington School of Dentistry and is in private practice in Tacoma and Silverdale, Wash.

Amr M. Moursi, DDS, PhD, Academic At-Large Trustee. Moursi is Chairman of the Department of Pediatric Dentistry at the New York University College of Dentistry. He received his D.D.S. degree from the University of Michigan School of Dentistry, completed his residency at Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, and earned a Ph.D. in Craniofacial Biology from the University of California, San Francisco. He maintains a private practice in New York City.

Leila C. Younger, DDS, MS, American Board of Pediatric Dentistry Director. Younger is a Clinical Assistant Professor of pediatric dentistry at Ostrow School of Dentistry of the University of Southern California. She received her degree from the University of Illinois at Chicago College of Dentistry, completed her residency at Children's Memorial Hospital in Chicago and received an M.S. from Northwestern University. She is in private practice in the Chicago suburbs.

Benco Dental Rolls Up Their Sleeves for 'Day of Caring'

Posted on May 26, 2015

 

Pittston, PA, May 15, 2015, For more than 20 years, the United Way of Wyoming Valley has sponsored an annual Day of Caring. Hundreds of representatives of business, industry, education and healthcare come together as volunteers, roll up their sleeves, and set to work helping nonprofit and charitable organizations throughout the Wyoming Valley area of Northeastern Pennsylvania with projects that their limited budgets cannot cover.

Since 2009, Benco Dental, the nation’s largest privately owned dental distributor, has invited associates of the company to participate in Day of Caring during their workday. At the event's 2015 opening breakfast, Thursday, May 14, members of the Benco Dental family joined nearly 640 volunteers at Best Western Genetti Hotel & Conference Center in downtown Wilkes-Barre, where Bill Jones, United Way of Wyoming Valley CEO, shared the organization’s goal of combating childhood poverty.

Before they headed out for a day of volunteerism, the battalion in blue (participants received blue T-shirts bearing the credo: “Building the Movement – Improving the Odds for Children and Families”) learned from Jones that one third of all children in the Wyoming Valley – more than 11,500 – are living in poverty. The United Way’s yearlong efforts, including the Day of Caring, support agencies that assist those young members of the population and their families.

During the breakfast program, organizations were recognized for their support of the United Way’s 2013-2014 Community Campaign, Benco Dental among them.

 “I was honored to represent Benco as a bronze sponsor of the Day of Caring, and to accept our award for the highest corporate gift. When Bill and Jen (Sordoni – chairpersons of the 2014 campaign) announced that we had won the award and how much Benco donated, there was a rumbling of ooos and aahs that erupted," said Michelle Kovaleski, Benco Dental Culture & People Assistant/Wellness Coordinator. "I felt very proud to be a part of an organization that started right here in the Wyoming Valley and sees the value in giving back to that very community.”

Immediately following the opening program, more than 850 volunteers from 56 organizations took part in the 23rd Annual United Way of Wyoming Valley Day of Caring. Those volunteers fanned out to complete 52 community projects across the Greater Wyoming Valley. They provided their elbow grease and muscle to help 36 local agencies. An estimated 5,000 volunteer hours were dedicated during the Day of Caring, for an estimated donation value of $115,000 in services.

According to Benco Dental Talent Specialist Florence Marchesano, 26 Benco Dental associates took part in the Day of Caring efforts. Their day included cleaning and painting at Volunteers in Medicine in Wilkes-Barre, which provides medical and dental care to low income families of Luzerne County who otherwise have no access to care, and cleaning, weeding and gardening at Ruth’s Place, a Volunteers of America program which provides safe, temporary and short-term emergency shelter for women experiencing homelessness in Luzerne and Lackawanna counties, while honoring the dignity of each guest.

For details about the United Way of Wyoming Valley Day of Caring or to support its efforts, visit: http://www.unitedwaywb.org/day-of-caring.html.

To learn more about Ruth’s Place, visit: ruthsplace.com and Volunteers in Medicine, visit: http://www.vimwb.com

 

About Benco Dental

Benco Dental, headquartered in Northeastern Pennsylvania, is the largest privately-owned dental distribution company in the United States, offering a full array of supplies, equipment and services to dentists across the nation. Founded in 1930 by Benjamin Cohen, the company has remained family-owned and focused on its unique mission to ‘deliver success, smile after smile.’ Over the past decade, Benco has been the nation’s fastest growing dental distributor, now servicing more than 35,000 dentists and dental laboratories.

Within the past 83 years, the company has grown from a single downtown location to a national network of more than 65 regional locations, five distribution centers, and two design showrooms. Those design showrooms, one at the company’s PA headquarters and one in Southern California, feature North America’s largest selection of dental equipment and technology, as well as a hands-on dental design experience, to assist dentists in the planning and construction of a new office.

Benco, which has been named one of Pennsylvania’s ‘Best Places to Work’ for 11 of the past 12 years, is proud to boast a highly skilled team of more than 400 professionally trained sales representatives and over 300 factory-trained service technicians.

For more information, visit benco.com or call 1.800.GO.BENCO.

 

Join Eaglesoft’s 21st Birthday at CEREC's 30th Anniversary Celebration

Posted on May 26, 2015

 

ST. PAUL, Minn., May 21, 2015, To commemorate its launch 21 years ago, Eaglesoft Practice Management System is celebrating its 21st birthday at the CEREC 30th Anniversary Celebration in Las Vegas on September 17-19. Eaglesoft is hosting a practice management focused educational track at the CEREC Celebration, where users can receive over 10 hours of invaluable Eaglesoft specific training. Attendees will return to their practice with new resources to implement change and measure success.

Throughout the event, Eaglesoft Track attendees will learn how to find, implement, and measure success in their practices. Attendees will receive training with Eaglesoft Mobile and learn to utilize features such as Money Finder, Intellicare and much more. There will also be ample opportunity to mix and mingle with other Eaglesoft users from across the U.S., as well as a sneak peak at Eaglesoft 18. Plus, Eaglesoft track registrants are able to enjoy all of the events, world class speakers and entertainment Sirona has planned for the CEREC event, including a live concert from the rock-band Train and a session with motivational speaker Tony Robbins.

“Eaglesoft has been improving practice workflows and scheduling for over 20 years, and we’re excited to provide an opportunity for users to attend a great educational event in a great city,” said Jana Berghoff, technology marketing manager of Patterson Dental. “A 21st birthday needs to be celebrated, so we’re ready to celebrate and show users how to maximize their current system and reveal what the future has in store for Eaglesoft!”To sign up for the Eaglesoft Training Track, simply register for the CEREC Celebration and select the “Eaglesoft 21st Birthday Bash Track.” When signing up for the Eaglesoft Track, attendees are still able to attend all of the CEREC Celebration activities 

For more information, visit http://www.cereconline.com/eaglesoft-21st-birthday-bash.

 

i-CAT Debuts Their New 3D Treatment Planning Software at AAO

Posted on May 26, 2015

Hatfield, PA, May 14, 2015, i-CAT, a brand of the KaVo Kerr Group, is pleased to release its new and enhanced Tx STUDIO 5.4 treatment planning software at the American Association of Orthodontists (AAO) Annual Session, San Francisco, CA. Fully integrated and exclusively for the award-winning family of i-CAT cone beam 3D imaging products, Tx STUDIO delivers a host of new and powerful treatment tools for dentists and specialists working with implants, airway, TMD, orthodontics, and surgical procedures.

In addition to its already existing capabilities for accurate implant planning and extraordinary restorative planning capabilities, Tx STUDIO 5.4 also offers new and improved tools. Useful for treatment planning and patient communication, these new features include an enhanced abutment design that allows the crown to be placed onto the abutment and prepped teeth, as well as simulation of pontics and bridges.

For airway analysis, more comprehensive and exclusive tools allow for 2D analysis of the airway with quantitative information on the anterior posterior distance and left and right distance. The airway can now be created and visualized in the variable quadrant. Changes in the parameters and area of the cross-sectional area along the airway are displayed graphically. Other helpful tools now available with Tx STUDIO 5.4 offer the opportunity to:

• Simulate a sinus bone graft in two clicks while gaining the approximate graft volume.

• Create bitewing radiographs from 3D data and evaluate those bitewings in all three dimensions.

• Replicate jaw articulation as well as offer control of the translation and rotation.

• Provide 3D analysis using orthognathic advanced cuts and movement that also show tissue change in profile.

“At i-CAT, we continually strive to create innovations to our products and software,” says Yena Chokshi, Product Manager for i-CAT. “The launch of Tx STUDIO 5.4 adds even more efficient planning and treatment tools to our already award-winning 3D imaging modality. As dentistry continues to evolve and offers more options to patients, these new tools show that we listen to our customers and respond to their increasing imaging needs.”

Tx STUDIO treatment software is included with new i-CAT cone beam 3D scanners, giving general dentists and specialists the tools to place and restore implants, perform oral surgery, periodontics, prosthodontics, orthodontics, utilize CAD/CAM applications, and analyze TMJ and airway with greater confidence and lower radiation options.

Indications for Use: www.i-cat.com/ifu


About i-CAT

Serving the dental industry since 1992, i-CAT is at the global forefront in the development and manufacturing of the computer-controlled dental and maxillofacial radiography products, and internationally recognized by highly regarded dentists and radiologists as one of the most innovative companies in dental imaging. i-CAT systems offers clinicians enhanced features for highly effective treatment planning and surgical predictability. i-CAT is exclusively distributed by Henry Schein Dental. To learn more, visit www.i-cat.com.

i-CAT is a member of the KaVo Kerr Group. KaVo Kerr Group is a global portfolio of leading dental brands that share common values of Trust, Experience, Choices, Quality and Smart Innovation. Brands include KaVo, Kerr, Kerr Total Care, Pentron, Axis|Sybron Endo, Orascoptic, Pelton & Crane, Marus, Gendex, DEXIS, Instrumentarium, SOREDEX, i-CAT, NOMAD, Implant Direct and Ormco. With over 500 years of combined experience and proven solutions, KaVo Kerr Group uniquely serves 99% of all dental practices. Visit www.kavokerrgroup.com for more information.

Revolutionary Therapeutic Dental Adhesives Show Aptitude to Remineralize Resin-Dentin Bonding Interface through Biomimetic Processes

Posted on May 26, 2015

Clinical minimally invasive treatments require the elimination of dental caries-infected tissues in order to stop the progression of bacteria to the pulpal chamber and maximize the reparative potential of the remaining partially demineralized tissues.

In order to encourage the remineralization of the remaining partially demineralized dental tissues after caries removal, glass-ionomer cements are currently used to favor the diffusion of the specific ions into mineral-depleted dentin. Nevertheless, these cements have no therapeutic ability to bio-remineralize the partially demineralized caries-affected dentine, accurately. It means that glass-ionomer cements, along with most of the restorative materials currently used in minimally invasive dentistry, do not induce nucleation of new hydroxyapatite crystals within the demineralized dentine collagen at intra-fibrillar level.

Salvatore Sauro, Professor of Dental Biomaterials and Minimally Invasive Dentistry at CEU Cardenal Herrera University, has led a research project which focused first on the use of phosphoproteins' biomimetic analogues in combination with experimental bioactive resin-based dental adhesives to remineralize the mineral-depleted dentin at the bonding interface of teeth filled with common restorative dental composites. The biomimetic analogues used in this study permitted the remineralization of collagen fibrils through precipitation of hydroxyapatite at intra-fibrillar level, so that the biomechanical properties of the demineralized dentin, such as the elastic modulus and hardness, were completely recovered. The results of this recent study have been published in Dental Materials.

According to professor Sauro, "The most important problem related to dental fillings in demineralized dental tissues, such as caries-affected dentine, is the lack of therapeutic bio-remineralization which can extend the durability of the resin-dentine bonding interface created with dental adhesives and resin composites."

Biomimetic Remineralization

Professor Sauro and collaborators have also shown that by using analogues of phosphoproteins in combination with bioactive adhesive resin-based materials doped with calcium and phosphates, it is possible to improve the longevity of the adhesion of dental composite restorations to dental tissues due to the biomimetic remineralization of mineral-depleted dentine at the bonding interface.

According to Salvatore Sauro, this study has demonstrated that the use of resin- adhesive doped with bioactive micro-fillers applied onto demineralized dentine pre-treated using biomimetic analogues of the phosphoproteins, such as polyaspartic acid (PLA) or sodium trimetaphosphate (TMP) represents an efficient and innovative therapeutic strategy to trigger biomimetic remineralization processes at the bonding area between dentine and restorative materials. This result is a further step to the prolific research activity of Professor Sauro, who is currently focusing the energy of his entire group of research on the development of innovative bioactive and biomimetic restorative materials for therapeutic and aesthetic restorations of teeth affected by large caries lesions.

Source: Science Daily

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